Agronomy is the most important and one of the main branch of agriculture. It includes cultivation of field crops means crop production, farm management, Organic farming, climate studies, nutrient and fertilizer management, cropping systems, irrigation and water management, weed management, etc. Agronomy provides farmer with agricultural information about how to grow and care for plants and soil in certain environment.
Crop Production :
- Study of cultivation practices for raising field crops viz. Kharif, Rabi, Summer, Annual, Cereals, and Millets – Rice, Maize, Sorghum, Bajra, Wheat, Barley, Fingermillet Ragi.
- Pulses – Gram, Cowpea, Pea, Blackgram (Udid), Green gram (Mung), Tur, Lentil.
- Oilseeds – Groundnut, Sunflower, Safflower, Sesame, Castor, Niger, Mustard.
- Forage Crops – Fodder maize, Cowpea, Lucerne,Berseem
- Cash Crops – Sugarcane, Cotton
- Tubers, Fibers, Spice, Green manuring crop.
Cropping System :
Cropping system represent crop growth pattern used on farm and their interaction with farm resources. It indicates yearly sequence and arrangement of crops and follow in the field. Types of cropping system – Mono Cropping, Multiple cropping, Inter cropping, mixed cropping sequence cropping etc.
Weed management in field decides yield and net profit for farmers. Weed is a plant which not sown by farmer is out of place. The estimated losses in crop yields range from 5% in clean cultivation to over 70% in neglected fields depending upon the degree of weed infestation. So weed management i.e. control of weed is very important practice.
Organic farming includes production of crops without using chemically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, genetically modified organism and livestock food additives. It is ecological and biological farming which uses organic fertilizers, green manuring and comport.
Irrigation and Water Management :
Irrigation is the artificial exploitation and distribution of water in the field in dry areas or in periods of scarce rainfall to assure or improve crop production. It is the act of timing and regulating irrigation water to satisfy water requirement of crops. Surface irrigation, localized irrigation, sub irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation these are some important irrigation methods which farmers commonly followed.