Extension Education is one of the prominent branches of agriculture has expanded rapidly during the last two decades and has assumed new dimensions with respect to its different disciplines. It is a significant social innovation, an important force in agricultural change. The field of ‘extension’ now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for rural people by educators from different disciplines.
Teaching is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences, feelings, and intervening so that they learn particular things, and go beyond the given. The teachers have adopted many teaching strategies to make better comprehension of the fundamental courses, especially among the undergraduate students. It will construct strong pillar in the academic life of the students.The agricultural extension system worldwide has been transforming to cater the rapid changes and unprecedented challenges faced by different countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The agricultural extension work has a venerable, albeit largely unrecorded history and placed as milestone for rapid transformation of rural life.
The word ‘Extension” is derived from the Latin root ‘ex’ meaning ‘out’ and ‘tensio’ meaning stretching. Education is the process of facilitating learning or acquisition of knowledge, skill values and habits. Education takes place them self as well as in front of instructor. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered education.
Education is the process of developing capability of the individual so that they can adequately response to their situation. We can also define education as process of bringing desirable change into the behaviour of human being. Webster defined Education as the process of teaching to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of the student. Sociologist, Rodney Stark, declares that, Education is the cheapest, most rapid and most reliable path to economic advancement under present conditions,
There are mainly three types of education, namely,
Agricultural Extension Services
There are three main categories of agricultural extension services in India. These are:
- Technology transfer services: Responsible for passing out advice, knowledge, and information to farmers.
- Advisory Services: Responsible for assisting farmers in case of particular issues they face.
- Facilitation Services: Responsible for supporting farmers to analyse their problems and develop their solutions accordingly.
Agriculture Extension Services in India: In India, Agricultural Extension Services are provided by the following bodies:
- Public sector undertakings such as Ministries of Agriculture or Rural Development,
- Private sector bodies such as agro-based dealers, crop science industry, seed and input companies, technology- providers, and buyers of agricultural products.
- Non-profit or non-government organisations, commodity boards, or farmer-based organisations.
Public Extension Services: The Public Extension System handles the Extension Services and Public extension system in India. These bodies are mainly- KVKs, State Agriculture departments, ICAR Organisations, Agriculture Universities, ATMAs, and several other Central and State Government organisations.
Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA): It is a multi-agency platform that stresses procedural and institutional reforms. It is a registered body that looks after technology dissemination at the district level. It links all the line departments, research organisations, non-governmental organisations, and agricultural development agencies in the district. ATMA’s constituent members are- Research and Extension units, Departments of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Horticulture, Fisheries, etc.
ATMA-KVK (Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs): linkage needs to be strengthened by creating functional inter-dependence as KVKs have an important role in the frontline extension system.
National Mission on Agricultural Extension & Technology (NMAET): It aims to ensure that farmers can easily avail themselves of seeds, pesticides, and machinery at affordable prices.
Functions of NMAET are:
- Promoting sustainable farm agriculture and capacity building among farmers, extension bodies, and other stakeholders through knowledge centres.
- Associating with knowledge generators for collecting and disseminating information to the beneficiaries through all channels.
- Development of disadvantaged groups of farmers who farm in difficult regions because, in these regions, the production is very low, which results in low macro yield.
- Connecting the mission to the grassroots level through effective mediums like farmers portal, Kisan call centres, etc.
- Providing on and off agricultural employment opportunities to youth via several interventions and programmes.
National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management: It is an autonomous body under the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation, and Farmers’ Welfare. Its function is to assist state and central governments to strengthen agricultural extension management services.
Extension Education Institutes (EEIs): This is in the higher order of the system that works on innovative and distinct agricultural or farming, poultry/livestock, etc., experiments. It ensures the capacity building of the respective areas.
State Agriculture Management and Extension Training Institute (SAMETI): These are an extended wing of MANAGE. They are part of the state-level institutional mechanism of the ATMA component of Sub-Mission on Agricultural Extension (SAME).
These institutes are responsible for capacity-building assistance, providing consultancy services related to project planning, appraisal, implementation, monitoring & evaluation, etc., and organising necessity-based training programmes.
Private Extension Services: Private Extension Services cover seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, machinery, credit, insurance, contract farming, export, advisory, etc. Moreover, several private companies like progressive farmers, farmers’ organisations (CIGs, FPOs), and cooperatives are direct stakeholders under this system. In addition, Agri-entrepreneurs, input dealers, NGOs, private banks, private media, donor agencies, consultancy firms, etc., are other private players.
Agricultural Extension Services empowers the nation’s farmers by providing them access to information, knowledge, technology, skills, risk& farm management practices across agricultural sub-sectors. Also, it helps them to understand the importance of the agricultural value chain so that the farmers can increase their net income sustainably.